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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

第六步 找到你的“花生”

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在过去的12个月里,这位22岁的T台女王兼真人秀明星赚得2200万美元,首次登顶福布斯模特收入榜。
Police, who raided the criminal operation, said they also found beef tripe, cartilage and other out-of-date animal organs - all of which had been smuggled across the border from neighbouring Vietnam. In total 20 tonnes of illegal meat was seized.
新版《蜘蛛侠》是迄今为止最棒的一部,这主要是因为它很搞笑。这部电影就像是《早餐俱乐部》、《春天不是读书天》遇上《怪胎与书呆》式的幽默。

恩爱日新。即便没有一切,只要有爱便足矣。
周二,土耳其总统雷杰普?塔伊普?埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)对荷兰的外交声讨升级,他宣称荷兰“品德败坏”,并认为荷兰军队对二战以来欧洲最恶劣的大屠杀难辞其咎。
"The autonomous region has invested 4 billion yuan (around 600 million US dollars) to promote industries with local features in poor areas, and relocated 77,000 poor people last year," said Lu Huadong, deputy director with the office.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

建材市场静待旺季来临 水泥、玻璃、建材或走出低迷

北京2016年受理外籍人士及其家属永久居留申请较2015年增长426%。
muscular
正当整个时尚界都在为拉格菲尔德哀悼,而除了他的众多继承人,他的爱猫邱佩特可能也会继承他的1.5亿英镑财产的一部份。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

I’m not saying you should blindly accept everything that’s offered to you, it’s okay to take time when considering the pros and cons of an opportunity. But, when you find yourself leaning toward “No,” you owe it to yourself to be sure that you’re turning down the opportunity for a valid reason, not just out of fear.
第十步 如果以上几条都做不到——就公告天下说你有反社会人格
This year, the Global 2000 companies hail from 62 countries, up from 46 in our inaugural 2003 ranking. In total, they raked in revenues of $38 trillion and profits of $3 trillion, with assets worth $161 trillion and a market value of $44 trillion.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Taken together, these events and strategic initiatives highlight the Chinese aerospace industry’s realization that, in order to become a globally competitive player, it will need depth as much as breadth. After getting their hands on both ends of the value chain—aircraft design and final assembly—the Chinese now understand that what will make or break their industry over the long term is what happens in the middle of the value chain, at the component and subsystem levels. And that is why China’s ambition to compete with Boeing and Airbus, as well as with GE and Rolls-Royce for aircraft engines, is now more credible than ever.
  • 央企重组提速入百时代渐近 钢铁业年内整合预期升温
  • Companies are always looking to save money, and outsourcing some roles to freelancers can help. Virtual assistants can perform many of the duties of full-time staffers, but with less commitment. These workers could help expand a business, or just encourage things to run more smoothly.
  • 科技股暴跌 许家印超越马云、马化腾成为中国首富
  • 日媒:中国楼市四小龙涨幅收窄 局部泡沫恐复苏
  • There is a natural human tendency to idealize and whitewash days of yore, to cast them in the rosy glow of the mind’s eye.
    The term was first devised by psychologist Johan Denollet from Tilburg University who created a quiz to identify a type D personality.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 深圳:21项不动产登记实现“全市通办”, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

“假期经济”已成过去 常态化营销深挖消费需求

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

中山古镇十里灯街店铺萧条 LED照明业遇瓶颈

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 2.纳米比亚
    飞速变化的效应
  • 不会。事情可能会这样发展:在一次试运营(其间出现多次交易停止)后,比特币期货将慢慢开始吸引机构资金。美国商品期货交易委员会(CFTC)的持仓数据将反映出资金管理公司对该产品存在的长期偏见。随着减仓的巨额成本变得不言自明,多头将越来越大声地抱怨围绕结算时间的例行分歧。就在参议院计划举行听证会调查潜在的市场操纵行为时,比特币期货价格将跌破现货价格,引发抛售。
    美国总统唐纳德特朗普(Donald Trump)的零和博弈、“交易艺术”谈判方式,将给那些守旧的现任领导人带来安慰。我希望2018年将提供机会,让正气的、解决问题的新领导人涌现出来。但如果企业领导人因为政治领导层没水平而灰心,变得因循守旧,那么变革可能陷入停滞。
    5. Smart belt
    “What we are seeing right now from China is not only a phenomenon for Brazil, we are seeing the same all over Latin America, declining [Chinese export] volumes into all the markets,” said Antonio Dominguez, managing director for Maersk Line in Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. “It has been going on for several quarters but is getting more evident as we move into the year [2016].”
    n. 购买,购买的物品

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 杭州有关部门权威人士明确放话: 房价松动?杭州房企别抱幻想了!
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 互联网装修盛行 定制化家居依存痛点

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

对于那些已把自家公寓改造成B&B旅店的纽约人,围绕非法住宿的论战可能会趋于白热化。而在这一切之上,市长比尔·白思豪(Bill de Blasio)的十年保障性住房计划将初具规模;与此同时,本次奥尔巴尼会议(Albany)的立法将给租房者的钱包造成重负。随着我们迈向新的一年,这类改变游戏规则的因素也正在日益迫近。
Best Companies rank: 61
Author Anthony Horowitz has revealed the new book Trigger Mortis has been amended for modern readers and contains anti-smoking messages and for the first time an ‘outspoken’ gay friend.
Turkey's Deputy Prime Minister Numan Kurtulmus said Turkish authorities were in contact with those in Iraq.
(美联社)波多黎各,圣胡安市 - 波多黎各新总督周一宣誓就职,作为美国领土许多人认为要为新的紧缩措施做准备,并为该岛摆脱严重的经济危机重新推动建州或独立。
Between 1991 and 2010, the cancer mortality rate fell by a whopping 20%, which is more than 10% a decade. One day we will say goodbye to cancer for good.
这62所大学在该榜单中占比达到12.4%,上榜大学的数量仅次于美国,其占比为27.8%。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 我敢保证,魔兽霍华德从未用过生长激素,但在其他人看来,他似乎用了很多。自从离开高中进入NBA后,霍华德的体形似乎翻了一番。
  • 建材家具商难言之痛:“7日网购后悔权”
  • Directing for a Mini-Series or Movie: Susanne Bier, “The Night Manager”
    《华胥引》
  • 楼市凶猛 分析称本轮暴涨已经“绑架”中国经济
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 3. 捷蓝航空(JetBlue) 品牌喜爱度:40%/排名:218
    2016全球大学国际化水平排名是由《泰晤士报》高等教育从28个国家的200所大学选出的。它采用了几项指标来衡量,比如国际员工的比例,国际学生的数量,每个学院至少有一个不同国家的作者合著的研究论文出版等。
  • The Geneva-based organization issued figures Tuesday showing 1,005,504 migrants from Africa and the Middle East have crossed into the continent by a combination of irregular land and sea routes, a four-fold increase from 2014.
    They come mostly from 50 different industries including food and beverage, automobiles and auto components, media, retail, energy and the Internet.
  • 还有几种汽车品牌名称也跻身榜单前50,包括ferrari(法拉利)和mercedes(梅赛德斯)等等。
    在外界看来,中国的经济实力还在从未经历文化大革命的年轻一代中,激发起民族主义情绪。北京方面在对待海上主权争议时的强硬回应,在本已对中国经济实力产生戒心的亚太区加剧了各方对中国军事目标的担心。这也是促使日本决定放松武器出口禁令的原因之一;令中国沮丧的是,其行为还推动邻国支持美国加强自己在亚洲的存在,并使得地区贸易一体化变得复杂。
  • Leatrice Eiseman, the executive director of the Pantone Color Institute, said the joining of the two colors reflected “a soothing sense of order and peace” — presumably an attractive thing to incorporate into a product at a time of insecurity and global turbulence. It also implies that there is no line between “us” and “them.”
    《每日经济新闻》引用一位专家的话称,银行业已经经历了一个低利润增长期,并且将持续很长一段时间。该专家表示,在过去的十几年里,银行业每年净利润增长达到35%至40%。但现在每年都不到1%,甚至有的银行都进入亏损状态。
    infect+ion→传染;感化
  • 反对:影片可能太过非主流,不具有获得大奖的影响力。
    corpor躯体,al-法人的
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 长三角楼市急速回暖 部分城市售楼速度创新高 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

“限”字令当下 会让房地产市场冷静下来吗?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

四川陶瓷卫浴产业格局之变

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

房地产价格回升影响CPI涨幅 一二线楼市将降温

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

线上线下互动忙 家居卖场花样多

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • "It's not sustainable growth because they're not being rented out and they're pricing people in the local market out of buying."
  • 立场:为禁止员工在家上班进行辩解
  • 融资渠道收紧还债高峰来临 地产债违约的信号灯亮了?

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 对欧洲的新投资比2014年的180亿美元高出28%,相比之下,2014年投资额较2013年翻了一倍。对美国的投资比2014年的128亿美元高出17%。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 轮滑看起来有点像常规的单排轮滑鞋,不过轮滑的轮非常大,尺寸大小跟自行车车轮差不多,看起来像是溜冰鞋,滑雪板和自行车的合体。最近一家名字叫作战车溜冰的公司声称,他们已经有了一些独特的想法——战车轮滑。根据该公司所说,这种轮滑是"革命性的新轮滑产品"。这是一场改革吗?也许是吧,他们至少在改进设计。这是发明吗?不是的。第一双轮滑早在142年前就已存在 。
    Actuaries put a financial value on risk for instance, the chances of a hurricane destroying a beachfront home or the long-term liabilities of a pension system. In a world awash with risks of the natural and manmade variety, the profession is booming, says Tony Lee, publisher of CareerCast.com. In addition, he says, 'there's a severe shortage of actuaries, ' so wages are rising. (The median salary for actuaries in 2010 was $87, 650, according to the Labor Department.)
    在007电影主题曲榜单上,《女王密使》的主题曲获得荣誉推荐。
  • 格陵兰鲨活得很久

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • “Thutmose III was one of the most important pharaohs in Egypt’s New Kingdom and is credited with establishing the Egyptian imperial province in Canaan,” said Gabriel Barkay, the co-founder and director of the Temple Mount Sifting Project.
  • 家居电商市场份额不到10% 受连锁卖场、生产企业联合抵制
  • Meanwhile, celebrated American rapper Eminem proved to be the comeback king as he picked up the Best Hip Hop gong. The Lose Yourself hitmaker was up against the newer faces of hip hop, including Drake, Future, Kendrick Lamar and Post Malone.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 京交会升格背后:去年服务贸易额创历史新高
  • Household substance abuse
  • 多措并举促进我国社区养老和家政服务业进一步加快发展
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

家居行业9名企业家上胡润百富榜

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 杭州家居行业拐点来了
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 《不动产权证书》概念模糊生歧义 房主一夜变房客
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

我判断摆烂不是看言论而是看球队动作的。所以,即使球队说他们没有摆烂,但是签了一大批落选的自由球员,同时报告明星球员伤病缠身,这时候你就知道,他们是在摆烂了。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

奥巴马取得胜利,也以为着在接下来四年的发展道路:关于国家开支、税收、医疗健康、政府的角色,还有应对中国发展和伊朗核问题等的外交措施。
[.s?:kju'lein]
现任美国主席奥巴马的内阁共有7名女性,17名男性,克林顿曾是其中一员。
[ik'sentrik]
[praim]
3.Oh, yeah. That makes sense. – Because option B involves admitting that I am clueless。
ef出,fect做-做出来的效果
马克斯将与她的朋友克洛伊一起,揭开她的同学雷切尔o安布尔神秘失踪背后的真相。游戏具有电影的体验感,配有不拘一格的原声,将当下年轻女孩的焦虑与生死攸关的情境结合了起来,再加上了时光倒流的能力,这一切使得这款游戏脱颖而出。尽管该作品中采用的机制在其他游戏中曾经用过,但由法国开发商制作的美国风格游戏,还是让这种定时操作有耳目一新的感觉。
Jumping all in is rarely ever successful. There are success stories about people who invested everything once and came out winners after six months or a couple years, but those are rare. Risk management is an essential factor in any startup, and balance is vital. You can absorb losses more easily if you take smaller risks in the beginning. Those will provide essential and productive lessons.
支持:奥德曼塑造的战时领袖丘吉尔收获一致好评,而这对他似乎是手到擒来的。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

中宇卫浴曝会计丑闻 日本建材企业巨亏5.3亿美元

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 积极稳妥去杠杆。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 通常冷静的分析师们早已习惯了汽车行业的缓慢增长,但是遇到特斯拉,他们就丢掉了一贯的谨慎。德意志银行(Deutsche Bank)的分析师罗德o拉切给该股设定了310美元的目标价格。无独有偶,摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)的分析师亚当o乔纳斯也将特斯拉的目标股价定为320美元,并称它是“世界上最重要的汽车公司”。
  • 绿色建筑规划带动新型建材产业发展
  • These are the major winners of the 68th annual Primetime Emmy Awards. Additional winners are listed at emmys.com.
  • 国家统计局:7月CPI同比增长2.1% 居住价格同比上涨2.4%
  • 达奇斯说:2012年菲亚特销售不旺。销售疲软体现在社交活动低迷,网络上大都是负面的讨论。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 衣柜市场的新营销卖点 “卖思想”才是上上之选
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 此外,该报告还指出,雨果博斯、雪佛兰和舒洁则跌出了该榜单。
  • The refugees have streamed into Greece, Bulgaria, Italy, Spain, Malta and Cyprus during 2015, with a huge majority -- over 800,000 -- arriving by sea in Greece. About 3,600 died or disappeared trying to make the perilous Mediterranean Sea crossing between North Africa and Italy.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

安徽探索“共享农房”模式盘活农村闲置农宅

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